WHAT IS ADHD?
Currently, there are two types of Attention Deficit disorders. One is hyperactivity and the other is hyperkinetic disorder. In this article, our topic of interest is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The most common neurodevelopmental disorder is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), affecting childhood and adolescence, in which 2.2 to 17.7% are school-aged children and adolescents (1). The prevalence rates are minimal in the Middle East, Asia, Australia, and Europe, and they are generally highest in South America, North America, and Africa (2). This disorder is multifaceted. It is referred to as functional impairment like social and behavioral difficulties. ADHD is highly prevalent among children. The pattern of these symptoms as the name suggests are hyperactivity and impulsivity and they usually appear before 12 years of age.
IMPORTANCE OF ADDRESSING ADHD IN STUDENTS:
Addressing ADHD in students is very important for several reasons.
1. To improve academic records:
Students struggling with ADHD find it difficult to focus on their studies. They cannot have accurate time management to pursue their academic tasks like quizzes and assignments. They even cannot concentrate on the teacher’s instructions, which causes them. Addressing ADHD helps them to design an approach to manage their symptoms and improve academic records.
2. To treat ADHD:
Diagnosis of ADHD leads to the successful treatment of the disorder. Addressing ADHD involves various therapies, medications, and behavioral interventions that help student in their academic well-being.
3. To protect them from depression, anxiety, and ultimately suicide:
Students with ADHD have low self-esteem due to consecutive failures. The failures are not only academic but also in retaining their social circle. These failures lead them toward social isolation. Addressing ADHD helps students to boost their relationships and self-confidence.
SYMPTOMS OF ADHD IN STUDENTS:
1. Inattentive symptoms:
Unable to maintain attention toward academic schedules. Difficulties in organizing tasks and activities. They forget certain things during learning and tasks. They cannot concentrate and do not maintain contact during lectures. Usually give up on mental effort tasks and are unable to engage in co-curricular activities.
2. Hyperactive-impulsive symptoms:
The students usually tap their hands and feet. They move their chair back and forth while sitting. They walk in small areas from one point to another continuously in anxiety. They start to talk excessively. Interrupt During conversations and discussions. They see blurry writings on the class board.
CAUSES OF ADHD IN STUDENTS:
Genetics plays a vital role in ADHD occurrence. Family history children with ADHD have an increased risk of developing the condition themselves. It is a complex interaction of multiple genes rather than a single gene, which leads to disorder.
2. Environmental factors:
If mother smokes during pregnancy built a higher risk of ADHD. Maternal exposure to environmental toxins. If a mother goes through anxiety or stress during pregnancy leads to ADHD. Immature delivery also promotes the symptoms of ADHD.
3. Brain development:
The structural differences also lead children to ADHD. These differences are in cortex, thalamus, gyrus basal ganglia, parietal lobe, etc. Disruption in neurotransmitters like dopamine function, which play a vital role in attention and nerve control.
STIGMA AND MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT ADHD:
There is a misconception in the masses that ADHD is not a real disorder. People do certain things to seek attention. However, it is a real disorder. Many people think individuals with ADHP are not disciplined and are couch potatoes but ADHD Affects their focus and overall behavior. Another misconception is that it only affects children. In most cases, it starts from children’s age but yes, it comes in adults also. Masses think that medicine is the only type of healthcare however, healthcare has many branches. These branches are also effective in medicine. We must not ignore or discriminate against such individuals around us. We must give acceptance to those individuals.
DIAGNOSIS OF ADHD IN STUDENTS:
Diagnosis involves special criteria given by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Here are some of the key points when diagnosing ADHD:
1. Medical history and clinical interviews:
Medical history plays an important role in diagnosing ADHD. It helps you to chalk out the symptoms from family history. Any previous diagnosis of other mental disorders or injury can also lead to ADHD assessment. Clinical interviews were conducted with people with symptoms, family members, and teachers to come up with an accurate diagnosis. You can also conduct physical examinations of student behavior in their settings and homes.
2. Rating scales and questionnaire:
Various scales and questionnaires universally used should be appointed for better diagnosis. The diagnosis must be conducted under the supervision of a specialist in this field. There are many rating scales of ADHD like Conner’s rating scale and BASC-3 etc. which not only chalk out symptoms but also give the severity of the symptoms.
3. Subtype identification:
It can be diagnosed from one of its three subtypes. Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-PI), Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation (ADHD-HI), or Combined Presentation (ADHD-C). The subtypes are assigned based on the patterns of symptoms.
TREATMENT OF ADHD:
Effective treatment of ADHD includes the introduction of medicines. These include methylphenidate and amphetamine derivatives. They help to improve conditions like inattention, worse nerve control, and lack of focus.
2. Cognitive behavioral therapy:
These allow individuals with ADHD to improve motor functions, emotional control, and hyperactivity. They both are helpful for children and adolescents.
This therapy encircles around education of the whole family to help the individuals complete their tasks. Family sittings were conducted to improve the communication barriers. The family became aware of to design of certain strategies to support such individuals in their daily lives.
4. Social skill training:
This training helps individuals to promote healthy relations with friends and family. They improve their social interaction with society.
MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH FOR ADHD:
The multidisciplinary approach promotes holistic care. The educational strategies involve individualized education plans (IEPs). For proper treatment, it is important to diagnose the disorder. This care must be continued from children to adulthood to get productive individuals suffering from ADHD.
More research studies on ADHD are required for better diagnosis and management of these disorders. We should work together to increase awareness on social platforms about ADHD. It is a real and less known disorder and individuals need special attention from society. We should give equal acceptance to those individuals in professional settings as well as in social settings.