What damage ADHD can do in children?
This disease of ADHD affects children and adults as well by makes them losing their attention span and focus. It is different from other disorders in the presence of continuous patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. These symptoms cause frustration and anxiety in both children and adults.
ADHD is a very prevalent condition in children. It is among the neurological disorder, which is diagnosed in children most frequently. While the prevalence differs, 5–10% of children worldwide are affected by ADHD. In addition, boys are diagnosed with ADHD more times than girls.
Early Effects of ADHD
It is important to study the effects of ADHD on individuals. It seems that it results due to environmental, mental, and biological factors. However, complete treatment is not available for the disease but various medicines and behavioral therapy still reduce symptoms. Better treatment of ADHD requires early screening of the disease.
Types and symptoms of ADHD:
A combination of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms define the Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (ADHD-H), which is defined by excessive physical activity and impulsive decision-making, and the Inattentive Type (ADHD-I), which is defined by difficulties in paying attention.
Common symptoms of inattention in children diagnosed with ADHD involve difficulty in completing tasks, difficulty managing activities, and periods of distraction. The signs of hyperactivity may include anxiety, and tapping of feet. Symptoms of impulsivity can include frustration, and interrupting while others speaking.
Causes of ADHD in children according to Ethical issues:
ADHD has a complicated etiology that includes environmental as well as hereditary causes. Genetic factors constitute a major role, making up 70–80% of the total hereditary contribution. ADHD is linked to particular variations in genes and the control of neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Apart from genetic occurrence, environmental factors also affect this.
Parental risk with ADHD
ADHD prenatal risk increases when the mother smokes during pregnancy. The factor of environment can be impacted by elements such as low birth weight, premature deliveries, and pregnancy risks. Apart from that, knowledge of ADHD needs an understanding of the physiological and anatomical awareness of the brain. Studies on cerebral imaging show differences in the brain areas associated with executive, nerve control, and interest.
Changes the size of prefrontal cortex due to ADHD in children
Variation in the size of the prefrontal cortex may lead to ADHD. However symptoms are not structural but disruption of neurotransmitters like serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine is also involved. To find out the relation between genetic, environmental, and biological factors is important to understand ADHD interventions and develop needed treatment.
Diagnosis of ADHD:
Diagnosis of ADHD is done according to the rating scale of DMS-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition). The pattern of symptoms of ADHD is divided into two types: inattention and impulsivity & hyperactivity. These symptoms should appear continuously for 6 months. These symptoms should be compromised in developmental, academic, professional, and mental areas. The fifth edition of the DSM-5 further divides ADHD into three subtypes: inattention diagnosis, hyperactive-impulsive appearance, and combined appearance.
Techniques for the proper diagnosis of ADHD by Ethical ways in children
A complete assessment is necessary for an accurate ADHD diagnosis and effective intervention. This test uses a combination of techniques, like interviews in clinics, findings, and the use of standardized rating scales. Clinical interviews allow doctors and nurses to gather information from parents, teachers, and individuals to better understand the cause and effect of symptoms. Observations in different situations, such as at home and school provide useful changes in behavioral patterns. Applied rating scales, marked by parents, teachers, and sometimes the patient self-help in finding the severity of symptoms and contribute to a more extensive scrutiny.
Treatment of ADHD in children:
Medicine is the only effective treatment for ADHD according to up-to-date knowledge. Stimulants like methylphenidate are used to reduce symptoms of ADHD. These drugs act on neurotransmitters i.e. dopamine and norepinephrine to treat deficits in attention, nerve control, and other patterns.
While they can have marked benefits, it is important to observe the potential side effects, which are insomnia, a lack of appetite, and, in some cases, mood swings. Regular observations and discussions with physicians are necessary to treat the syndrome.
Behavioral therapy includes the modification of an individual’s classical pattern of ADHD. This type of treatment works by setting goals, and skill- building, and feedback. In this type of training parents, attend classes, in which they learn coping strategies to support their affected member. Cognitive treatment encircles Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) which helps individuals to strengthen their abilities.
Multimodal treatment option:
This treatment is a combination of behavioral therapy, medicines, and educational plans. It is the most effective mode of treatment for ADHD individuals. Every child has different abilities and approaches towards treatment. Medicines should be checked for their side effects.
Ethical Issues in Medication Use:
The use of medicine for the treatment of children with ADHD increases ethical problems. An important issue is the balance between managing symptoms and the risk of over dosage. Ethical decisions need careful consideration of the children’s health receiving informed consent from parents and observing medication working and their side effects. To screen these ethical concerns, it is important to make sure that medication is part of the treatment plan rather than solely depending on them.
DECISIONS shared with parents:
Whenever making decisions they should be discussed with their guardians. Parents should be provided with multiple models for the treatment. They should be defined with their pros and cons. Their privacy should be protected.